Another View of Stalin by Ludo Martens
Dedicated to all those Soviet Ukrainian patriots who died fighting Nazi Germany and its Ukrainian collaborators and to all those today fighting the Second Nazi Invasion funded by the USA, Germany and the European Union.
Introduction by Ian Patrick Beddowes
At a time when Ukraine is in the middle of the Second Nazi invasion, the Nazis are being justified by the story that the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin deliberately created famine in Ukraine as a form of genocide against the Ukrainian people. This revolting lie has been repeated and repeated despite detailed evidence which clearly shows a completely different picture. This well documented chapter from Another View of Stalin by Ludo Martens shows clearly what really happened.
To both add to this and to summarize:
1) There was famine in Russia (including Ukraine which was part of the old Russian Empire) at fairly regular intervals. Thus in 1891-1892, long before the Bolsheviks came to power, there was a very serious famine caused by bad weather conditions coupled with primitive agricultural methods.
Dr Émile Joseph Dillon lived in Russia from 1877 to 1914. Professor at several Russian universities, he was also the chief editor of a Russian newspaper. He had traveled to all areas of the empire. He knew the ministers, the nobility, the bureaucrats and the successive generations of revolutionaries.
His testimony about the Russian peasantry warrants a few thoughts:
“…the Russian peasant… goes to bed at six and even five o’clock in the winter, because he cannot afford money to buy paraffin enough for artificial light. He has no meat, no eggs, no butter, no milk, often no cabbage, and lives mainly on black bread and potatoes. Lives? He starves on an insufficient quantity of them. ”
Émile Joseph Dillon, quoted in Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Soviet Communism: A New Civilization? 2nd edition (1937).
The Ukraine famine of 1932-1933 was the last famine ever to occur in the Soviet Union. This was due to collectivization and mechanization introduced by the Soviet government with the support of the overwhelming majority of the people.
2) In 1932-1933 there were:
- Hot weather and low rainfall.
- A typhus epidemic due to the weather conditions which was responsible for approximately half the deaths.
- Burning of crops and slaughter of livestock by the kulaks (rich peasants) opposed to collectivization aided and abetted by fascist Ukrainian Nationalist elements.
The deaths during this period were due to the above causes.
- The overwhelming majority of Ukrainian Nazis – those who consistently propagate the myth of ‘The Holdomor’ come from West Ukraine, an area which was part of Eastern Poland until 1940! They were far from the famine area.
- Those who were in the famine affected areas in 1932-1933 for the most part engaged in massive and heroic resistance to the Nazi invasion, refusing to give up their greatly improved life in the collective as has been attested by reports from the German Nazis themselves.
Collectivization: Before and After
COLLECTIVIZATION AND THE ‘UKRAINIAN HOLOCAUST’
Lies about the collectivization have always been, for the bourgeoisie, powerful weapons in the psychological war against the Soviet Union.
We analyze the development of one of the most `popular’ lies, the holocaust supposedly perpetrated by Stalin against the Ukrainian people. This brilliantly elaborated lie was created by Hitler. In his 1926 Mein Kampf, he had already indicated that Ukraine belonged to German ‘lebensraum’. The campaign waged by the Nazis in 1934-1935 about the Bolshevik ‘genocide’ in Ukraine was to prepare people’s minds for the planned ‘liberation’ of Ukraine. We will see why this lie outlived its Nazi creators to become a US weapon. Here is how fabrications of ‘millions of victims of Stalinism’ are born.
On 18th February 1935, the Hearst press in the US began the publication of a series of articles by Thomas Walker. (Hearst was a huge press magnate and a Nazi sympathizer.) Great traveller and journalist, Walker had supposedly crisscrossed the Soviet Union for several years. The 25th February 1935 headline of the Chicago American read, “Six Million Perish in Soviet Famine: Peasants’ Crops Seized, They and Their Animals Starve.” In the middle of the page, another headline read, “Reporter Risks Life to Get Photographs Showing Starvation.” At the bottom of the page, “Famine – Crime Against Humanity”.
[Reported in Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)]
At the time, Louis Fischer was working in Moscow for the US newspaper The Nation. This scoop by a completely unknown colleague intrigued him greatly. He did some research and shared his findings with the newspaper’s readers:
“Mr. Walker, we are informed, entered Russia last spring,” that is the spring of 1934. He saw famine. He photographed its victims. He got heartrending, first-hand accounts of hunger’s ravages. ”
Now hunger in Russia is ‘hot’ news. Why did Mr. Hearst keep these sensational articles for ten months before printing them?
“I consulted Soviet authorities who had official information from Moscow. Thomas Walker was in the Soviet Union once. He received a transit visa from the Soviet Consul in London on September 29, 1934. He entered the USSR from Poland by train at Negoreloye on October 12, 1934. (Not the spring of 1934 as he says.) He was in Moscow on the thirteenth. He remained in Moscow from Saturday, the thirteenth, to Thursday, the eighteenth, and then boarded a trans-Siberian train which brought him to the SovietManchurian border on October 25, 1934… ”
“It would have been physically impossible for Mr. Walker, in the five days between October 13 and October 18, to cover one-third of the points he ‘describes’ from personal experience. My hypothesis is that he stayed long enough in Moscow to gather from embittered foreigners the Ukrainian ‘local color’ he needed to give his articles the fake verisimilitude they possess.”
Fischer had a friend, Lindsay Parrott, also American, who visited the Ukraine in the beginning of 1934. He noticed no traces of the famine mentioned in Hearst’s press. On the contrary, the 1933 harvest was successful. Fischer concluded:
“The Hearst organizations and the Nazis are beginning to work more and more closely together. But I have not noticed that the Hearst press printed Mr. Parrott’s stories about a prosperous Soviet Ukraine. Mr. Parrott is Mr. Hearst’s correspondent in Moscow.”..
Article by Lois Fischer in The Nation (13th March 1935) quoted in Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)
Underneath a photograph of a little girl and a `frog-like’ child, Walter wrote:
“FRIGHTFUL – Below Kharhov (sic), in a typical peasant’s hut, dirt floor, thatched roof and one piece of furniture, a bench, was a very thin girl and her 2½ year old brother (shown above). his younger child crawled about the floor like a frog and its poor little body was so deformed from lack of nourishment that it did not resemble a human being.” Quoted in Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)
Douglas Tottle, a Canadian union worker and journalist, found the picture of this same ‘frog-like’ child, dated spring 1934, in a 1922 publication about the famine of that year.
Another photo by Walker was identified as that of a soldier in the Austrian cavalry, beside a dead horse, taken during the First World War. [reported by James Casey, Daily Worker, 21st February 1935]
Poor Walker: his reporting was fake, his photographs were fake, even his name was assumed. His real name was Robert Green. He had escaped from the Colorado State Prison after having done two years out of eight. Then he went to do his false reporting in the Soviet Union. Upon his return to the States, he was arrested, where he admitted in front of the court that he had never set foot in the Ukraine.
The multi-millionaire William Randolph Hearst met Hitler at the end of the summer of 1934 to finalize an agreement under which Germany would buy its international news from the Hearst owned company International News Service. At the time, the Nazi press had already started up a propaganda campaign.
Other similar reports on the famine would show up in Hearst’s press. For example, Fred Beal started to write. A US worker sentenced to twenty years of prison after a strike, he fled to the Soviet Union in 1930 and worked for two years in the Kharkov Tractor Works. In 1933, he wrote a little book called Foreign Workers in a Soviet Tractor Plant, favourably describing the efforts of the Soviet people. At the end of 1933, he returned to the US, where unemployment and prison awaited him. In 1934, he started to write about the Ukrainian famine, and soon his prison sentence was dramatically reduced. When his ‘eyewitness account’ was published by Hearst in June 1935, J. Wolynec, another US worker who had worked for five years in the same Kharkov factory, exposed the lies that showed up throughout the text. Although Beal pretended to have heard several conversations, Wolynec noted that Beal spoke neither Russian nor Ukrainian. In 1948, Beal offered his services to the far-right as an eyewitness against Communists, in front of the McCarthy Committee. [see Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)]
Tractors, Kharkov (1932)
” The Kharkov Tractor Works had a special problem. It was built (in 1929) ‘outside the plan’ Peasants joined collective farms faster than expected. Kharkov, proudly Ukrainian, built its own plant ‘outside the Five-Year Plan’. All steel, bricks, cement, labour were already assigned for five years. Kharkov could get steel only by inducing some steel plant to produce ‘above the plan’. To fill the shortage of unskilled labour, tens of thousands of people – office workers, students, professors… volunteered on free days… “Every morning, at half-past six, we see the special train come in,” said Mr Raskin. “They come with bands and banners, a different crowd each day and always jolly.” It was said that half the unskilled labour that built the Plant was done by volunteers”. Anna Louise Strong, The Stalin Era (1956)
Part I: A Book from Hitler
In 1935, Dr. Ewald Ammende published a book, Muss Russland Hungern? (1936) [English title: Human Life in Russia] Its sources: the German Nazi press, the Italian fascist press, the Ukrainian émigré press and ‘travellers’ and ‘experts’, cited with no details. He published photos that he claimed “are among the most important sources for the actual facts of the Russian position”.
There are also photos belonging to Dr. Ditloff, who was until August 1933, Director of the German Government Agricultural Concession – Drusag in the North Caucasus. Ditloff claimed to have taken the photos in the summer of 1933 “and they demonstrate the conditions… [in] the Hunger Zone”.
Given that he was by then a civil servant of the Nazi government, how could Ditloff have freely moved from the Caucasus to the Ukraine to hunt pictures? s photos was published by the Nazi paper Volkischer Beobachter, dated 18th August 1933. This photo was also identified among books dating back to 1922.
Ammende had worked in the Volga region in 1913. During the 1917-1918 Civil War, he had held positions in the pro-German counter-revolutionary governments of Estonia and Latvia. Then he worked in liaison with the Skoropadsky government set up by the German army in the Ukraine in March 1918. He claimed to have participated in the humanitarian aid campaigns during the 1921-1922 Russian famine, hence his familiarity with the photos of the period.
For years, Ammende served as General Secretary of the so-called European Nationalities Congress, close to the Nazi Party, which included regrouped émigrés from the Soviet Union. At the end of 1933, Ammende was appointed Honorary Secretary of the Interconfessional and International Relief Committee for the Russian Famine Areas, which was led by the pro-fascist Cardinal Innitzer of Vienna. Ammende was therefore closely tied to the Nazi anti-Soviet campaign.
When Reagan started up his anti-Communist crusade at the beginning of the eighties, Professor James E. Mace of Harvard University thought it opportune to re-edit and re-publish Ammende’s book under the title Human Life in Russia. That was in 1984. So all the Nazi lies and the fake photographic evidence, including Walker’s pseudo-reporting on the Ukraine, were granted the ‘academic respectability’ associated with the Harvard name. The preceding year, far-right Ukrainian émigrés in the US published The Great Famine in Ukraine: the Unknown Holocaust. Douglas Tottle was able to check that the photos in this book dated to 19211922. Hence the photo on the cover comes from Dr F. Nansen’s International Committee for Russian Relief publication Information 22, Geneva, 30th April 1922, p. 6!
Neo-Nazi revisionism around the world ‘revises’ history to justify, above all, the barbaric crimes of fascism against Communists and the Soviet Union. First, it denies the crimes that they themselves committed against the Jews. Neo-Nazis deny the existence of extermination camps where millions of Jews were slaughtered. They then invent ‘holocausts’, supposedly perpetrated by Communists and by Comrade Stalin. With this lie, they justify the bestial crimes that the Nazis committed in the Soviet Union. For this, revisionism at the service of the anti-Communist struggle, they receive the full support of Reagan, Bush, Thatcher and company. [see Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)]
A Book from McCarthy
Thousands of Ukrainian Nazi collaborators succeeded in entering the USA after the Second World War. During the McCarthy period, they testified as victims of ‘communist barbarity’. They reinvented the faminegenocide myth in a two-volume book, Black Deeds of the Kremlin, published in 1953 and 1955 by the Ukrainian Association of Victims of Russian Communist Terror and the Democratic Organization of Ukrainians Formerly Persecuted by the Soviet Regime in the USA. This book, dear to Robert Conquest, who cites it regularly, contains a glorification of Petlyura, responsible for the massacre of tens of thousands of Jews in 1918-1920, as well as a homage to Shukhevych, the fascist commander of the Nazi-organized Nachtigall Battalion and later the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA).
Black Deeds also contains a series of photos of the 1932-1933 famine-genocide. They are all fakes. Deliberate fakes. One picture is captioned A little cannibal. It appeared in issue 22 of the Information bulletin of the International Committee for Russian Relief in 1922, with the original caption Cannibal from Zaporozhe: has eaten his sister. On page 155, Black Deeds included a picture of four soldiers and an officer who had just executed some men. The caption reads The Execution of Kurkuls [Kulaks]. Small detail: the soldiers are wearing Tsarist uniforms! Hence, Tsarist executions are given as proof of the ‘crimes of Stalin’.
One of the authors of Volume I of Black Deeds was Alexander Hay-Holowko, who was Minister of Propaganda for Bandera’s ‘government’ of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in Western Ukraine. During the brief existence of this fascist clique, Nationalist mobs and Ukrainian auxiliary troops killed some thousands of Jews, Poles and Bolsheviks in the Lvov region. Hay-Holowko, who now resides in Vancouver, also served in the SS.
Among the persons cited as ‘sponsors’ of the book is Anatole Bilotserkiwsky, alias Anton Shpak, a former officer in the Nazi police at Bila Tserkva. According to witnesses and documents Shpak/Bilotserkiwsky and others personally took part in the execution of two thousand predominantly Jewish civilians. [see Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)]
Part III: Between 1 and 15 Million Dead
In January 1964, Dana Dalrymple published an article in Soviet Studies, entitled The Soviet Famine of 19321934. He claimed that there were 5500 000 dead, the average of 20 various estimates. One question immediately comes to mind: what are these sources of the `estimates’ used by the professor?
One of the sources is Thomas Walker, who made the famous ‘trip’ to Ukraine, where he “presumably could speak Russian”, according to Dalrymple.
Another source was Nicolas Prychodko, a Nazi collaborator who worked for the Nazi controlled ‘Ministry of Culture and Education’ in Kiev. Prychodko was evacuated West by the Nazis during their retreat from Ukraine. He provided the figure of seven million dead.
These are followed by Otto Schiller, Nazi civil servant charged with the re-organization of agriculture in Nazi-occupied Ukraine. Claiming 7 500 000 dead, his text, published in Berlin in 1943 and was cited by Dalrymple.
The next source was Ewald Ammende, the Nazi who had not been in Russia since 1922. In two letters published in July and August 1934 in the New York Times, Ammende spoke of 7 500 000 dead and pretended that in July of that year, people were dying in the streets of Kiev. A few days later, the NYT correspondent, Harold Denny, gave the lie to Ammende:
Your correspondent was in Kiev for several days last July about the time people were supposed to be dying there, and neither in the city, nor in the surrounding countryside was there hunger.
Several weeks later, Denny reported:
stuffs”. New York Times, quoted in Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)
Next, Frederick Birchall spoke of more than four million dead in a 1933 article. At that moment, he was, in Berlin, one of the first US journalists to publicly support the Hitler régime. Sources six to eight are William H. Chamberlin, twice, and Eugene Lyons, both anti-Communist journalists. After the war both were prominent members of the American Committee for the Liberation from Bolshevism (AMCOMLIB), better known as Radio Liberty. AMCOMLIB funds were raised by ‘Crusade for Freedom’, which received 90% of its funds from the CIA.
Chamberlin gave a first estimate of four million and a second one of 7 500 000 dead, the latter number based on an ‘estimate by foreign residents in Ukraine’. Lyons’ five million dead were also the result of noise and rumours, based on ‘estimates made by foreigners and Russians in Moscow’
The highest figure (ten million) was provided, with no details, by Richard Stallet of Hearst’s pro-Nazi press. In 1932, the Ukrainian population was 25 million inhabitants.
Among the twenty sources in Dalrymple’s ‘academic’ work, three come from anti-Soviet articles in Hearst’s pro-Nazi press and five come from far-right publications from the McCarthy era (1949-1953). Dalrymple used two German fascist authors, a former Ukrainian collaborator, a right-wing Russian émigré, two CIA collaborators, and a journalist who liked Hitler. A great number of the figures come from unidentified `foreign residents’ in the Soviet Union.
The two lowest estimates, dated 1933, came from US journalists in Moscow, known for their professionalism, Ralph Barnes of the New York Herald Tribune and Walter Duranty of the New York Times. The first spoke of one million and the second of two million dead of famine. [see Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)]
Part IV: Two Professors to the Rescue of Ukrainian Nazis
To help the new anti-Communist crusade and to justify their insane military buildup, US right-wingers promoted in 1983 a great commemoration campaign of the ‘50th Anniversary of Famine/Genocide in Ukraine’. To ensure that the terrifying menace to the West was properly understood, proof was needed that Communism meant genocide. This proof was provided by the Nazis and collaborators.
Two US professors covered them up with their academic credentials: James E. Mace, co-author of Famine in the Soviet Ukraine, and Walter Dushnyck, who wrote 50 Years Ago: The Famine Holocaust in Ukraine – Terror and Misery as Instruments of Soviet Russian Imperialism, prefaced by Dana Dalrymple. The Harvard work contains 44 alleged 1932-1933 famine photos. 24 come from two Nazi texts written by Laubenheimer, who credited most of the photos to Ditloff and began his presentation with a citation from Hitler’s Mein Kampf:
“If, with the help of his Marxist creed, the Jew is victorious over the other peoples of the world, his crown will be the funeral wreath of humanity and this planet will, as it did millions of years ago, move through the ether devoid of men”.
Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf [My Struggle] (1926)
The majority of the Ditloff–Laubenheimer pictures are utter fakes coming from the immediate World War I era and the 1921-1922 famine, or else portray misrepresented and undocumented scenes which do not describe conditions of famine-holocaust.
The second professor, Dushnyck, participated as a cadre in the fascist Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, which became active at the end of the thirties.
[see Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)]
Part V: ‘Scientific’ Calculations
Dushnyck invented a ‘scientific’ method to calculate the dead during the ‘famine-genocide’; Mace followed his method:
“…taking the data according to the 1926 census… and the January 17, 1939 census… and the average increase before the collectivization… (2.36 per cent per year), it can be calculated that Ukraine… lost 7 500 000 people between the two censuses. ”
These calculations are meaningless. The world war, the civil wars and the great famine of 1920-1922 all provoked a drop in the birth rate. The new generation born in that period reached physical maturity, 16 years of age, around 1930. The structure of the population would necessarily lead to a drop in the birthrate in the thirties. Free abortion had also dramatically reduced the birthrate during the thirties, to the point where the government banned it in 1936 to increase the population. The years 1929-1933 were characterized by great, violent struggles in the countryside, accompanied by times of famine. Economic and social conditions of this kind reduce the birthrate. The number of people registered as Ukrainians changed through inter-ethnic marriages, changes in the declared nationality and by migrations.
The borders of the Ukraine were not even the same in 1926 and 1939. The Kuban Cossacks, between 2 and 3 million people, were registered as Ukrainian in 1926, but were re-classified as Russian at the end of the twenties. This new classification explains by itself 25% to 40% of the ‘victims of the famine-genocide’ calculated by Dushnyck-Mace.
Let us add that, according to the official figures, the population of Ukraine increased by 339 000 persons between 1926 and 1939. Compare those figures with the increase of the Jewish population under real genocidal conditions, organized by the Nazis.
To test the validity of the ‘Dushnyck method’, Douglas Tottle tried out an exercise with figures for the province of Saskatchewan in Canada, where the thirties saw great farmers’ struggles. The repression was often violent. Tottle tried to ‘calculate’ the number of statistical ‘victims’ of the ‘depression-genocide’ caused by the 1930’s Great Depression and Western Canadian drought, complicated by the right-wing Canadian governments’ policies and use of force. This ‘scientific method’, which any respectable person would call a grotesque farce for Canada, is widely accepted in right-wing publications as ‘proof’ of the ‘Stalinist terror’.
[see Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)]
The ‘famine-genocide’ campaign that the Nazis started in 1933 reached its apogee half a century later, in 1983, with the film Harvest of Despair, for the masses, and in 1986, with the book Harvest of Sorrow, by Robert Conquest, for the intelligentsia.
The film Harvest of Despair, about the Ukrainian ‘genocide’ was created by Reagan’s entourage to instill in people’s minds that Communism is synonymous with genocide.
Harvest of Despair won a Gold Medal and the Grand Trophy Award Bowl at the 28th International Film and TV Festival in New York in 1985. The most important eyewitness accounts about the `genocide’ appearing in the film are made by German Nazis and their former collaborators.
Stepan Skrypnyk was the editor-in-chief of the Nazi journal Volyn during the German occupation. In three weeks, with the blessing of the Hitlerite authorities, he was promoted from simple layman to bishop in the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, and in the name of ‘Christian morality’, put forward vicious propaganda for Die Neue Ordnung, the Hitlerite New Order. Fleeing the Red Army, he sought refuge in the US.
The German Hans von Herwath, another eyewitness, worked in the Soviet Union in the service that recruited, among the Soviet prisoners, mercenaries for General Vlasov’s Russian Nazi army. His compatriot Andor Henke, also appearing in the film, was a Nazi diplomat.
To illustrate the ‘famine-genocide’ of 1932-1933, the authors used sequences from pre-1917 news films, bits of the films Czar Hunger (1921-1922) and Arsenal (1929), then sequences from Siege of Leningrad, filmed during the Second World War.
When the film’s producers were publicly attacked by Tottle in 1986, Marco Carinnik, who was behind the film and had done most of the research, made a public declaration, quoted in the Toronto Star:
Carynnik said that none of the archival footage is of the Ukrainian famine and that very few photos from ‘32-33’ appear that can be traced as authentic. A dramatic shot at the film’s end of an emaciated girl, which has also been used in the film’s promotional material, is not from the 1932-1933 famine. Carynnik said.”I made the point that this sort of inaccuracy cannot be allowed, he said in an interview, “I was ignored”. [see Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)]
Robert Conquest Falsifies History
Robert Conquest worked for the disinformation services, officially called the Information Research Department (IRD), of the British Foreign Office until 1956. In British embassies, the IRD head is responsible for providing doctored information to journalists and public figures. He is the person who first concocted the lie taught in schools that “Stalin murdered 20 million people”.
The following photographs were published in the book Human Life in Russia by Ewald Ammende and were reproduced in his book Harvest of Sorrow about the Ukraine famine of 1932.
This photo was taken at the time of the Volga Famine which happened as the Russian Civil war was coming to a close. It is on a special postcard produced in Belgium in collaboration with the Soviet government to support famine relief. Note the date ‘1921’ towards the bottom right. It is one of the images most frequently reproduced to prove ‘Soviet brutality’.
This photo is a still taken from a Soviet sponsored documentary on the 1921-1922 Volga Famine. It is at present being fraudulently used by the Canadian based ‘United Human Rights Commission’ in their pro-Nazi propaganda piece.
Part VII: Harvest of Sorrow: Conquest and the Reconversion of Ukrainian Nazi Collaborators
In January 1978, David Leigh published an article in the London Guardian, in which he revealed that Robert Conquest had worked for the disinformation services, officially called the Information Research Department (IRD), of the British secret service. In British embassies, the IRD head is responsible for providing `doctored’ information to journalists and public figures. The two most important targets were the Third World and the Soviet Union.
“Robert Conquest… frequently critical of the Soviet Union was one of those who worked for IRD. He was in the FO [Foreign Office] until 1956.”
At the suggestion of the IRD, Conquest wrote a book about the Soviet Union; one third of the edition was bought by Praeger, which regularly publishes and distributes books at the request of the CIA.
In 1986, Conquest contributed significantly to Reagan’s propaganda campaign for ordinary US citizens about a possible occupation of the US by the Red Army! Conquests book, co-authored by Manchip White, was entitled, What To Do When the Russians Come: A Survivalist’s Handbook. In his book The Great Terror (1968, revised 1973), Conquest estimated the number of dead during the 1932-1933 collectivization at five to six million, half in Ukraine. During the Reagan years, anti-Communist hysteria needed figures exceeding those of the six million Jews exterminated by the Nazis. In 1983, Conquest thought it opportune to extend the famine conditions to 1937 and to revise his ‘estimates’ to 14 million dead. His 1986 book Harvest of Sorrow is a pseudo-academic version of history, as presented by the Ukrainian far-right and Cold warriors.
Conquest claims that the Ukrainian far-right led an ‘anti-German and anti-Soviet’ struggle, repeating the lie that these criminal gangs invented after their defeat as they sought to emigrate to the US. Conquest, dealing with Ukrainian history, mentions the Nazi occupation in one sentence, as a period between two waves of Red terror!
He completely erased from his history the bestial terror that the Ukrainian fascists undertook during the German occupation, since they are the best sources for the ‘famine-genocide’.
Roman Shukhevych was the commander of the Nachtigall Battalion, composed of Ukrainian nationalists wearing the German uniform. This battallion occupied Lvov on 30th June 1941 and took part in the three-day massacre of Jews in the region. In 1943 Shukhevych was named commander of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (the Banderivtsy, or UPA), armed henchmen of the OUN fascist Stepan Bandera, who after the war pretended that they had fought Germans and Reds.
All their `tales’ of battles that they had fought against the Germans turned out to be false. They claimed to have executed Victor Lutze, the Chief of Staff of the German SA. But, in fact, he was killed in an automobile accident near Berlin.
They claimed to have done battle against 10 000 German soldiers in Volnya and Polyssa, during the summer of 1943. Historian Reuben Ainsztein proved that during the course of this battle, some 5 000 Ukrainian nationalists had participated at the side of 10 000 German soldiers, in the great campaign of encirclement and attempted annihilation of the partisan army led by the famous Bolshevik Alexei Fyodorov! Ainsztein noted:
“…the UPA gangs, which became known as the Banderovtsy, proved themselves under the command of Shukhevych, now known as Taras Chuprynka, the most dangerous and cruel enemies of surviving Jews, Polish peasants and settlers, and all anti-German partisans.” Reuben Ainsztein, Jewish Resistance in Nazi-Occupied Eastern Europe (1974)
The Ukrainian, 14th Waffen SS Galizien Division (also known as the Halychyna Division), was created in May 1943. In his call to Ukrainians to join it, Kubijovych, the head of the Nazi authorized Ukrainian Central Committee, declared:
“The long-awaited moment has arrived when the Ukrainian people again have the opportunity to come out with guns to give battle with its most grievous foe, Muscovite-Jewish Bolshevism. The Fuehrer of the Great German Reich has agreed to the formation of a separate Ukrainian volunteer military unit.” Volodomyr Kubijovych quoted in Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)
Before, the Nazis had imposed their direct authority on Ukraine, leaving no autonomy to their Ukrainian allies. It was on the basis of this rivalry between German and Ukrainian fascists that the Ukrainian nationalists would later build their myth of ‘opposition to the Germans’. Pushed back by the Red Army, the Nazis changed tactics in 1943, giving a more important role to the Ukrainian killers. The creation of a ‘Ukrainian’ division of the Waffen SS was seen as a victory for ‘Ukrainian nationalism’.
On 16th May 1944, the head of the SS, Himmler, congratulated the German officers of the Galizien Division for having cleansed Ukraine of all its Jews.
Wasyl Veryha, a veteran of the 14th Waffen SS Division, wrote in 1968:
…the personnel trained in the division [14th Waffen SS] had become the backbone of the UPA… the UPA command also sent groups of its people to the division to receive proper training… This reinforced the UPA which was left on the Native land [after the Nazi retreat], in particular its commanders and instructors.
Although the Melnyk and Bandera tendencies of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists were at odds with each other and even fought each other, we can see here how they collaborated against the Communists under the leadership of the German Nazis.
The Nazi officer Scholtze revealed in front of the Nuremberg tribunal that Kanaris, the head of German intelligence, had: Wasyl Veryha in NAZI Uniform
…personally instructed the Abwehr to set up an underground network to continue the struggle against Soviet power in the Ukraine. Competent agents were left behind specially to direct the Nationalist movement.
Quoted in Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)
Note that Mandel’s Trotskyist group always supported the ‘anti-Stalinist’ armed struggle that the OUN fascist thugs led between 1944 and 1952.
After the war, John Loftus was an attorney for the US Justice Department Office of Special Investigations, in charge of detecting Nazis who were trying to enter the United States. In his book The Belarus Secret, he affirms that his service was opposed to the entry of Ukrainian Nazis.
But Frank Wisner, in charge of the US administration’s Office of Policy Coordination (OPC), a particularly important secret service at the time, systematically allowed former Ukrainian, Croatian and Hungarian Nazis to enter.
Wisner, who would later play an important role at the head of the CIA, asserted:
The OUN [Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists] and the partisan army it created in 1942 (sic), UPA, fought bitterly against both the Germans and the Soviet Russians.
Quoted in Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)
Here one sees how the US intelligence services, immediately after the war, took up the Ukrainian Nazis’ version of history in order to use the anti-Communists in the clandestine struggle against the Soviet Union.
“This was a complete fabrication. The CIC [US Counter-Intelligence Corps] had an agent who photographed eleven volumes of the secret internal files of OUN-Bandera. These files clearly show how most of its members worked for the Gestapo or SS as policemen, executioners, partisan hunters and municipal officials. Quoted in Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987) In the United States, former Ukrainian Nazi collaborators created ‘research institutes’ from which they spread their revision of the history of the Second World War.”
” Nazi intelligence officers, came from the American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism, now known as Radio Liberty. The committee was actually a front for OPC”.Quoted in Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)
“Against Hitler and against Stalin”: it was around these words that former Hitlerites and the CIA united their efforts. For uninformed people, the formula “against fascism and against communism” may seem to be a ‘third path’, but it surely is not. It is the formula that united, after the defeat of the Nazis, former partisans of the disintegrating Greater Germany and their US successors, who were striving for world hegemony. Since Hitler was now just part of the past, the far-right in Germany, Ukraine, Croatia, etc., joined up with the US far-right. They united their efforts against socialism and against the Soviet Union, which had borne the brunt of the antifascist war. To rally the bourgeois forces, they spread lies about socialism, claiming that it was worse than Nazism. The formula “against Hitler and against Stalin” served to invent Stalin’s ‘crimes’ and ‘holocausts’, to better cover up and even deny Hitler’s monstrous crimes and holocausts.
In 1986, the Veterans of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army the very ones who pretended to have fought “against Hitler and against Stalin”, published a book entitled, Why is One Holocaust Worth More than Others?, written by a former member of the UPA, Yurij Chumatskyj, regretting that:
“…revisionist historians who claim there was no plan to exterminate Jews, there were no mass gassings and that fewer than one million Jews died of all causes during World War II, are persecuted.”
“…according to Zionists’ statements Hitler killed six million Jews but Stalin, supported by the Jewish state apparatus, was able to kill ten times more Christians.”
Yurij Chumatskyj, Why is One Holocaust Worth More than Others? (1968)
[see Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987)]
Part VIII: Conquest’s Fascist Sources
The title of the crucial part – Chapter 12 – of Harvest of Sorrow is The Famine Rages. It contains an impressive list of 237 references. A more careful look shows that more than half of these references come from extreme-right-wing Ukrainian émigrés. The Ukrainian fascist book Black Deeds of the Kremlin is cited 55 times! No wonder that Conquest uses the version of history provided by Ukrainian Nazi collaborators and the US secret services.
In the same chapter, Conquest cites 18 times the book The Ninth Circle by Olexa Woropay, published in 1953 by the youth movement of Stepan Bandera’s fascist organization. The author presents a detailed biography for the thirties, but does not mention what he did during the Nazi occupation! A barely concealed admission of his Nazi past. He took up his biography again in 1948, in Muenster, where many Ukrainian fascists took refuge. It is there that he interviewed Ukrainians about the famine-genocide of 1932-1933. None of the ‘witnesses’ is identified, which makes the book worthless from a scientific point of view. Given that he said nothing about what he did during the war, it is probable that those who `revealed the truth about Stalin’ were Ukrainian Nazi collaborators who had fled.
Beal, who wrote for Hearst’s pro-Nazi 1930’s press, and later collaborated with the Cold War McCarthyite House Committee on Un-American Activities, was cited five times. Kravchenko, the anti-Communist émigré, is a source ten times; Lev Kopelev, another Russian émigré, five times. Among the included ‘scientific’ references is Vasily Grossman’s novel, referenced by Conquest fifteen times!
Then, Conquest cites interviews from Harvard’s Refugee Interview Project, which was financed by the CIA. He cites the McCarthy-era Congressional Commission on Communist Aggression as well as Ewald Ammende’s 1935 Nazi book. Conquest also refers five times to Eugene Lyons and to William Chamberlin, two men who, following World War II, were on the Board of Trustees of Radio Liberty, the CIA Central European radio network. On page 244, Conquest wrote:
One American, in a village twenty miles south of Kiev, found… they were cooking a mess that defied analysis.
The reference given is the New York Evening Journal, 28th February 1933. In fact, it is a Thomas Walker article in Hearst’s press, published in 1935! Conquest deliberately ante-dated the newspaper to make it correspond to the 1933 famine.
Conquest did not name the American: he was afraid that some might recall that Thomas Walker was a fake who never set foot in Ukraine. Conquest is a forger.
To justify the use of émigré books recording rumours, Conquest claimed “truth can thus only percolate in the form of hearsay” and that “basically the best, though not infallible, source is rumour”.
This statement gives fascist slanders, disinformation and lies academic respectability.
[see Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (1987); J. Arch Getty, Origins of the Great Purges: The Soviet Communist Party Reconsidered, 1933-1938 (1985)]
Part X: Ukraine under Nazi Occupation
The Japanese armies occupied Manchuria in 1931 and took up position along the Soviet border. Hitler came to power in 1933.
The programmes of industrial and agricultural reorganization undertaken by the Soviet Union in 1928-1933 came just in time. Only their success, at a cost of total mobilization of all forces, allowed the victorious resistance to the Nazis. One of history’s ironies is that the Nazis started to believe their own lies about the Ukrainian genocide and about the fragility of the Soviet system.
Historian Heinz Hohne wrote: Security Service] noted that the feeling was growing among the German people that we have been victims of delusion.
The main and startling impression is of the vast mass of Soviet weapons, their technical quality, and the gigantic Soviet effort of industrialization – all in sharp contrast to the previous picture of the Soviet Union. People are asking themselves how Bolshevism has managed to produce all this.
The US professor William Mandel wrote in 1985:
“In the largest eastern portion of the Ukraine, which had been Soviet for twenty years loyalty was overwhelming and active. There were half a million organized Soviet guerillas… and 4 500 000 ethnic Ukrainians fought in the Soviet army. Clearly that army would have been fundamentally weakened if there had been basic disaffections among so large a component.”
Historian Roman Szporluk admits that the “zones of operation of organized Ukrainian Nationalism … was limited to the former Polish territories”, i.e. to Galicia. Under Polish occupation, the fascist Ukrainian movement had a base until 1939. The Ukrainian holocaust lie was invented by the Hitlerites as part of their preparation of the conquest of Ukranian territories.
But as soon as they set foot on Ukrainian soil, the Nazi ‘liberators’ met ferocious resistance. Alexei Fyodorov led a group of partisans that eliminated 25 000 Nazis during the war. His book The Underground Committee Carries On (1952), admirably shows the attitude of the Ukrainian people to the Nazis. Its reading is highly recommended as an antidote to those who talk about the ‘Stalinist Ukrainian genocide’.
Leader of Ukrainian Partisans
Alexei Fyodorovich Fyodorov